Nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant neoplasm of epidermal cells in which cells differentiate into keratinocytes. There are opinions that the sensitivity of the nasal planum to ultraviolet rays triggers the development of SCC in the region. In all species, SCC can occur in young animals, but the incidence increases with age. The highest incidence of SCC is in cats 9 to 14 years of age.
Nasal lymphoma is the most common nasal tumor in cats. Cats with nasal lymphoma show respiratory clinical signs, including runny nose, epistaxis, dyspnea, facial deformities, anorexia, and buphthalmia. Histopathology, as well as immunohistochemical methods, plays an important role in the diagnosis of nasal lymphoma. Histopathologically, nasal lymphoma in cats is usually high grade, and cases of feline nasal lymphoma are generally reported to be B-cell lymphoma. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and their combination are used as a treatment for feline nasal lymphoma tumors.
Lymphoma is the most common malignancy among felines, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common site of this disease. Alimentary lymphoma can affect the upper or lower GI tract, liver, or pancreas and is characterized by infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes. There are different grades of gastrointestinal lymphoma, often referred to as low grade (lymphocytic or small cell), high grade (lymphoblastic, immunoblastic or large cell), and moderate. Gastrointestinal lymphoma is usually a disease of older cats. Clinical signs commonly include vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss.
Osteosarcoma is responsible for 85% of malignant bone tumors in dogs and approximately 70% in cats. Although the age range of osteosarcoma in dogs is wide, the average age of occurrence is 7 years and it is reported that it develops more frequently in giant breeds. Even if the diagnosis appears to be early when the primary mass is small, the outcome is almost always fatal due to its rapid metastasizing character. Clinical signs reflect the location of the lesion, with lameness being the earliest symptom in most cases. Radiological examinations are helpful in diagnosis.
Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) in dogs is a malignant tumor transmitted due to the transplantation of tumor cells. Although it is most common in female and male external genitalia, extragenital localization has been also reported. It may occur in areas such as the oral mucosa, lips, nasal cavity, eyes, and skin due to the implantation of tumor cells during mating movements, and it has been also less frequently reported in tonsils, liver, pancreas, spleen, lung, kidney and mesenterial lymph nodes. Dogs of both sexes and all ages can be affected, but the tumor is more common in young and sexually active dogs.
MCH is an uncommon, progressive disease of dogs. There are very few reports on MCH, which are both in wide age range and in different species. This syndrome of multiple, persistent and recurrent MCH can be documented under LCH, as the condition LCH in humans. In one study, histiocytic cells were found to originate from Langerhans cells. There is no difference in the immunophenotypic features of the CH and LCH, and CD1a can be used for the detection of histiocytic diseases. Likewise, CD1a was found positive in this case and was found compatible with the MCH, as well as LCH. The positive effect of lomustine on histiocytic tumors has been previously reported for the treatment of MCH. In this case, effective treatment could not be obtained with corticosteroids. So that treatment was continued with lomustine and its successful effect was confirmed in the treatment of MCH.
Oral malign melanoma is the most commonly diagnosed tumor in the oral cavity of dogs. Successful results for BRAF gene mutations have been achieved in human medicine in the diagnosis of this neoplasia and in targeted treatment attempts. In this case report, it is aimed to present the prognostic evaluation of the patient who was detected to be BRAF V600E immunopositive.
Canine oral papilloma is a benign tumor of young dogs and caused by papillomavirus. The possible role of papillomavirus infection in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma has recently been studied, but it has not been elucidated in veterinary medicine yet.
Peripheral giant cell granuloma is one of the non neoplastic pathological conditions of gingiva and is a very rare condition encountered in pet animals. Histopathology is the diagnostic tool to eliminate similar lesions. The aim of this case report was to present this rare condition and its marked remission by radiotherapy and zoledronic acid (ZA) administration.
Hibernoma is a very rare benign tumor of brown fat tissue which is found in hibernating and non-hibernating mammals. Until now, it has been reported in rats, dogs, and human beings. In this case report, a thirteen-year-old, spayed, female Siamese cat was examined for intestinal motility disorder.